While science only started provide some clues to the brain mysteries, we can speculate based on the experiences of some people who practice memory training. Our cognition is a complex process that is capable of dealing simultaneously with language input and nonverbal objects and events. Created by: http://raypastore.com. There are many ways to visually represent material, such as with infographics, timelines, cartoon strips, diagrams, and graphic organizers. Put simply, the use of verbal and visual information – not learning styles. From the text on the left, try and answer the questions. It is well-known that musicians have a memory superior to the memory of people without musical training. Your email address will not be published. BONUS: Extra gifts in my first email to you! The example below, that I use in my presentations to make the concept of computational efficiency come alive, makes the point more effectively than my explanations. According to the Dual Coding Theory, both verbal and non-verbal processing is essential for learning. It’s all very well to give your students diagrams that convey information that require less effort to understand, but if you don’t then use them to make your students think, not much will be learned. Paivio introduced logogens and imagens as two different types of representational units. ’principles. Use pictures (the tiles) and video to visualize difficult definitions, subjects, terms, … While dual coding has scientific evidence backing its use, learning styles has been repeatedly tested and shown not to improve learning. Visual information was defined by Paivio as being synchronous, or simultaneous’ in structure. There are so many... We all have to deal with bad behaviour in our classroom but what are the best strategies to use? Allan Pavio discovered that our memory has two codes (or channels) that deal with visual and verbal stimuli. The use of combined verbal and visual information is called dual coding. He daily asks himself what’s harder to work with, children or sharks! Often, cognitive science brings bad news to students. Above all, teachers need to make their handwriting legible. Put simply, the use of verbal and visual information – not learning styles. It is important for all teachers and school leaders to streamline their thought processes and expectations in order to work more effectively. This lets them process the knowledge in two different ways. Why? Whilst it stores them independently, they are linked (linking words to images). Diagrams should be thought of as platforms from which to better analyse texts and prepare for speaking and writing. By continuing using this site we'll assume you're OK with this. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Video: An Introduction to Dual Coding By Oliver Caviglioli. While Paivio noted these important structural differences, he didn’t devote his research to exploring them much further. The large body of research conducted by Paivio and his colleagues over the years has been brought together in Mind and its evolution: A dual coding theoretical approach (Paivio, 2007), which informs the following discussion. When we use two information formats whilst studying, it allows us to have two different ways of retaining that information for exams or in later life. Clark & Paivio (1991) present dual coding theory as a general framework for educational psychology. The propositional theory state mental representation are stored as a proposition rather than as images. Sportsmen often perform better in mathematical tasks. Over the last ten years, the 5 Minute Lesson Plan template has helped shape national policy and continues to help new teachers across the world lessen the burden of paperwork, whilst also supporting lesson planning as a cognitive process. The more connections students h… It originated with Paivio in the 70s, and explains how visual and linguistic information is processed in two different areas of the brain. Typographers have a long history of theory, research and practice as to what makes reading easy. As cognitive science authors, Clark and Lyons (2004) warn: “Visuals ignored, don’t teach”. I firmly believe that teachers need to do less, not more, to work more effectively. What is Retrieval Practice and Why is it so Powerful? REVIEW: Teaching for Mastery by Mark McCourt. Cognitive Load Theory, 2011, Sweller, Ayres & Kalyuga, 15 Learning Theories in Education (A Complete Summary), Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The word or image stimulates retrieval of the other. Dual coding and learning styles sound similar but are not quite the same thing. Theory that an input represented in memory as a word and a picture is more readily recalled than a word we can't put a image with. Therefore, how you deploy and use dual coding methods will vary significantly. To make sense of each word, they need to relate to others. Such distances require cognitive effort in searching and connecting in order to make the necessary inferences to make sense of the text as a whole. verbal communication and visual representation. Aligning the chunks, and any other element on the page —line or image— makes scanning and search so much easier for the reader. This, then, makes inferences so much more difficult, or effortful, to make. (The Learning Scientists). This theory suggests that there are two distinct subsystems contributing to cognition: one is specialized for language and And signal the chunks by providing more headings than you normally would. Don’t forget to join my Facebook group, like my Facebook page and follow me on Instagram and Twitter. In the future, I hope that schools develop a dual coding framework to support their teachers to think more cognitively about their work, considering spatial and verbal working memory as well as how these translate into classroom resources for pupils and how this information influences their teaching style. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. I first became interested in academic research about 15 years ago when I completed my masters degree; today observing how education dialogue across England was shaping the teaching profession. There are others but these two are the most fundamental. Dual coding has helped me optimise a framework for thinking and working in the busy nature of school life and has evolved from prior aspects of my work: classroom teaching, assembly preparation and observation feedback to leadership meetings and keynote conference presentations or online conversations with website clients. Forcing students to decipher a rushed handwritten script is an unnecessary cognitive burden that clearly bears an extraneous, unproductive load. As robust as his findings were over several decades, we ought not to forget that the nature of the content learned by his laboratory subjects was cognitively unchallenging. In developing this theory, Paivio used the idea that the formation of mental images aids learning. MEMBERSHIP - from £1 per month = Exclusive Insights, Webinars + Resource Templates! It’s no surprise then that John Sweller —the originator of the related Cognitive Load Theory— concludes that, “Working memory capacity can be effectively increased, and learning improved, by using a dual-modepresentation.” (Cognitive Load Theory, 2011, Sweller, Ayres & Kalyuga) Often, cognitive science brings bad news to students. These natural capacities are at play in the reading of diagrams and require considerably less cognitive resources than in reading texts. He also produced poster summaries of educational ideas and CPD packages. That’s where Jill Larkin and Herbert Simon come into the picture. First hypothesized by Allan Paivio in 1971, Dual Coding Theory – a theory of cognition and how we think – uses the idea that the formation of mental images aids in learning. In 1987, they wrote a paper that developed Paivio’s distinction of sequential and synchronous information structures. Graphic organisers can usefully be grouped along these four types of deductive reasoning: Identifying the nature of the knowledge task is essential before moving on to choose an appropriate visual tool. They are confront… The dual-coding theory is not accepted by everyone. According to the dual-coding theory, the additive effects of concreteness and relatedness on memory performance implicate independent contributions of the two systems. For a more detailed explanation of dual coding theory and examples of how it can be included in your classroom practice, Oliver’s book; “Dual Coding with Teachers” is perfect, it will be hugely useful to any teacher. Now try to answer the same questions by looking at the image below…. The principle of dual coding, as first put forth by Allan Paivio in 1971, states that our brains can process information from two channels at the same time. This is the chapter that never made it to the final cut of Oli Cav’s new book on Dual Coding. This theory suggests that there are two distinct subsystems contributing to cognition: one is specialized for language and verbal information, and the other for images and non-verbal information. Note, this also includes non-verbal communication – literally and visually. The impact on teaching and learning is obvious. For anyone unfamiliar with the term dual coding the Learning Scientists, a group of cognitive psychological scientists interested in research on education, define dual coding as: “ The process of combining verbal materials with visual materials. Required fields are marked *. Encoding, of course, is psychologists’ term for learning and, so, such a powering up of the encoding and retrieval processes deserves teachers’ close attention. By forming such a link, the encoding process is enriched. In addition, these visual elements can be perceived in one go, and not serially. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. People living in the same house are more likely to be related in some way than people in separate houses. Teachers should assume that cognitive load theory will be different in many different subjects and teaching and learning age groups. What if?’ to underpin any planning process for classroom teaching, writing and teacher training delivery. What appears to be at issue is whether or not separate memory codes for verbal and imaginal processing is a necessary component of an explanation of the concreteness effect. Magicians and jugglers have superior perception and reading speed. The Complete Guide for Teachers. This theory states that images occur as a result of other cognitive … This article contains some affiliate links, that we may get financial recompense, this in no way affects any reader in any purchases they may make. It’s the easiest and most effective of all the principles. I could add a hundred resources to support this post, this would spark a lively conversation but would hurt our focus … This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The 7 best behaviour management... Dual Coding Theory. By comparing the time, effort and accuracy involved in understanding concepts communicated in either verbal or visual format, they arrived at what is now called “The Visual Argument”. From the figure, one can see the terms logogens and imagens. So, they are both apart from one another but can cooperate in forming linked pairs of words and images. That’s not how schools work though, they do deal with cognitively challenging content. It’s a very effective learning strategy because it facilitates the processing of novel information and reduces students’ working memory load. The psychological research I have been exploring lately is called "Dual Coding Theory." Reading texts involves an almost constant travelling back and forth searching which parts relate to which. What is dual coding? How to Survive Your 1st Teaching Year. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Dual-coding theory, a theory of cognition, was hypothesized by Allan Paivio of the University of Western Ontario in 1971. Dual coding is the process of combining verbal materials with visual materials. Teachers across the edubloggotwitterverse have been talking about images, diagrams, visuospatial sketchpads and phonological loops. In essence, as new input enters the brain, it's stored in short term memory in two distinct categories. Convinced of this you may be but, as always, there’s more to it than just presenting a diagram to your students. Contact me:paul@teacherofsci.com +44 7899 996229, FREE Benefits of Technology in the Classroom PDF, About TeacherOfSci (Paul Stevens-Fulbrook), Henry Sauntson. Dual-Coding Theory. First hypothesized by Allan Paivio in 1971, Dual Coding Theory – a theory of cognition and how we think – uses the idea that the formation of mental images aids in learning. The seminal research of Allan Paivio on “dual coding” beginning in the late 1960s has had a profound impact on theories about how multimedia contributes to learning. Dual coding means giving your students verbal and visual representations at the same time. The 5 Minute Lesson Plan and its success are not just down to the visuals used to support planning as a thought process, but how the visual information helps steer thinking from ‘doing towards learning’ following a simple set of ‘What? What is dual coding and why is it so important for teachers to know? Your email address will not be published. For example, when we see the word “dog” it can make us think of an image or memory of a dog and vice versa. I was simply too late to respond. How can Dual Coding be used in the classroom? And then spent the next four decades researching it, trying to ‘break it’. Paivio (1986) provides a dual coding explanation of bilingual processing. In contrast, Marschark and Hunt (1989) argue… The use of text and images not only supports the individual but the process of combining verbal materials with visual materials, supporting teachers to think better about what pupils need to learn in the busy nature of school life. Here, proposition is defined as the meaning that underlies the relationship between concepts (Sternberg, 2003). Developed by Allan Paivio in the 1960s, dual-coding theory is a theory of cognition according to which humans process and represent verbal and non-verbal information in separate, related systems. Dual coding theory, first hypothesised by Allan Paivio in 1971, is a process of combining verbal and visual materials. Verbal information, you won’t be surprised to learn, is sequential in construction. As I read it, their strongest claim is that we best understand and remember information that is concrete, and by concrete they mean imagery connected to our motor/perceptual/emotional neural circuitry. Dual-coding theory describes the modality information process in working memory. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. In the core of Dual Coding Theory lies the attempt to prompt learning and expand on learning material through verbal associations and visual imagery. Paivio proposes that the human mind operates with two distinct classes of mental representation (or codes), verbal representations and mental images, and that human memory thus comprises two functionally independent (although interacting) systems or stores, verbal memory and image memory. By Oliver Caviglioli and Paul Stevens-Fulbrook. Identify the categories so it’s easier to make sense. The idea is to provide two different representations of the information, both visual and verbal, to help students understand the information better. Dual-coding theory is the process of blending both words and pictures whilst learning. Just look closely at any newspaper or magazine design and you will see these principles in action. Use photographs as an aide-memoire to make connection and improve recall. he becomes TeacherOfSci, an education blogger and author at teacherofsci.com. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window). Dual-coding theory postulates that both visual and verbal information … To be confident of this, printing in a clear, bold style with no flourishes or elaborations, is essential. Writer at teacherofsci.com. Learn how your comment data is processed. The modality information includes verbal and non-verbal. Words, by contrast, have to be processed one at a time. Deductive Reasoning in Dual Coding Theory. How YOU can Handle the Most Common Misbehaviors in the Classroom (FREE PDF). You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Think ‘busy’, then also add another insurmountable number of tasks on top of your regular day job. When teachers employ a dual coding mindset to their learning materials, the student’s cognitive load is reduced and their working memory capacity is increased, thus, learning is improved. Dual coding is a theory of cognition introduced by Allan Paivio in late 1960s. Why? 2. Dual coding theory has been applied to many cognitive phenomena including: mnemonics, problem-solving, concept learning and language. What if? Get my eBook (above) FREE with the Kindle unlimited FREE trial. The word or image stimulates retrieval of the other. In other words, don’t make them ‘artistic’ and random in placement. But, for now, we’ll stay with Paivio’s studies of the associative links between the two modality systems. For school leaders, rather than demand endless paper-trails to prove teacher-effectiveness, instead, develop a teacher’s repertoire by immersing them in cognitive science principles which will improve classroom delivery no-end. And this is why psychologists argue (Clark & Lyons 2004) that diagrams can be largely understood by using our everyday perception. As a vice principal leading whole-school teaching and learning, their research and scientific principles came at just about the right time when teacher workload and wellbeing started to receive national recognition as a serious issue for English education in 2013. Having the awareness of what dual coding can do, will make you a better teacher. Analogy: Things closer together are more related. I have every intention to continue using dual coding, adapting the techniques to tweak content and delivery in a much more effective and meaningful manner. When Paivio found that the two channels worked as separate systems, he also noted that they were also fundamentally different in structure. Back in 1971, Canadian researcher, Allan Paivio, formulated his dual coding theory. Chunk the selected content. Recent months have seen an explosion of interest in dual coding (technically Dual Coding Theory). Whilst it stores them independently, they have links between them. Using it in your classroom can boost students’ learning and help them retain information over time. As you might now expect, there’s one more danger to avoid. Supposing the correct organiser is chosen to fit the nature of the task, its execution needs to be adequate. The Dual Coding Theory is illustrated below. Reflecting on the 15,000 teachers I have worked with over the past two years, as more and more schools use and adapt some of my teaching and learning approaches, I intend to reflect deeply on my experiences of using dual coding and how this shapes my work. The dual coding theory describes the role of sensory inputs in information processing. His books and articles have helped over 1 million teachers across the globe since it launched in April 2018. Others did, I’m glad to say, and we will shortly meet them and learn what they discovered. Dual Coding: Using this method can help to improve memory and retrieval. Gestalt psychology, for nearly a century, has shown us that we immediately understand that proximity of elements represent commonality, as indeed does inclusion within a border (think Euler and Venn diagrams). For example, the brain uses a different kind of representation for the word "tree" than it … And plotting the plot of Hamlet becomes confusing if a mind map is used. The more intricate details of Dual Coding Theory are beyond our scope here, but the core idea is very simple and intuitive. The dual-coding theory asserts that learning becomes more effective and efficient when incoming information is processed … So what are educational learning theories and how can we use them in our teaching practice? In their study, well-constructed diagrams were judged to be more computationally efficient than text. The Visual Argument only happens when teachers have chosen an appropriate visual tool. These two synonymous terms were used to explain that with diagrams, several, if not all, the elements could be viewed in one go. For many years I have worked on the basis of a simple metric: ‘What? Dual Coding Theory makes both of these more efficient. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Human memory has two methods that deal with visual and verbal stimuli. Prior to teaching, he was a marine biologist working on coral reef conservation. Dual coding is a cognition theory based on the assumption that human mind processes the information in two ways i.e. Humans receive new information from the environment in either visual or verbal formats. If you're a teacher and you're anything like me, any time you hear of a pay increase, you're all over the internet, trying to... What are Learning Theories? So, what is retrieval practice, and why is it effective? This website uses cookies to improve your experience. This video attempts to briefly describe the main concepts of dual coding and cognitive load. These linked memories make retrieving the information much easier, reducing the cognitive load required. In a chapter on the implications of Dual-Coding for education, they make no grandiose claims for their the effects use of their theory could have in the classroom. Difficult isn’t it! Dual coding is quite different in that pairing words and images don’t incur any additional cognitive load and also greatly helps retrieval. Because of the sequential nature of verbal information, each word is addressed one at a time. Order makes reading and scanning so very much easier. You may need to check your promotions tab (please drag the email into your Primary tab). Every teacher disseminates knowledge, but very few have ever been taught how best to impart knowledge effectively so that pupils can understand and apply it. I find myself more immersed in cognitive science, coaching and presentation techniques to ensure I utilise my skills to greatest effect. Coding Theory. His most significant discovery was that we have two separate channels that deal with verbal and visual stimuli. Firstly…Simply to cut—reduce the volume presented on page or slide. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. He has been teaching since 2012 and his impression of a bee pollinating plants is almost legendary! Sometimes this is simply the ones directly preceding them. This is why Paivio described visual information being synchronous or simultaneous in structure. We have come along way in this time, but we cannot assume that the issue of workload has been eradicated. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. But, as good as this news is, it’s only half the story. This learning theory still stands today as one of the most robust ways of understanding the invisible processes that happen in our heads as we attempt to make sense of incoming stimuli. Simply to cut—reduce the volume presented on page or slide. His recent groundbreaking book "Dual Coding with Teachers" is currently inspiring teachers far and wide. They are confronted by the facts that learning happens through thinking hard (Coe), that the comforting habit of rereading and highlighting is very inefficient, and that studying one topic at a time is less than optimal. The use of images can also make students create new and stronger connections between pieces of knowledge. Expect, there are many ways to visually represent material, such as with infographics, timelines, what is dual coding theory,... They wrote a paper that developed Paivio ’ s studies of the other I am sharing and how dual. As a proposition rather than as images in education, 27 educational and! Western Ontario in 1971 the image below… a never-ending juggling act made worse in surviving in toxic... Proposition rather than as images you use this website firmly believe that teachers need relate... Images and words facilitates the processing of novel information and reduces students ’ working in. Information processing on Instagram and Twitter 2012 and his impression of a are! Text on the topic so important for all teachers and school leaders to streamline their thought processes and in. Discovery was that we have come along way in this time, but we can not that... Used the idea is very simple and intuitive jugglers have superior perception and reading speed process for teaching. Supposing the correct organiser is chosen to fit the nature of the sequential nature of two... A better teacher to avoid use third-party cookies that help us analyze and how... Check your promotions tab ( please drag the email into your Primary tab ) not more, help! Been talking about images, diagrams, graphic organizers from the text the... Representations at the image below… well-constructed diagrams were judged to be more efficient... Information was defined by Paivio as being synchronous or simultaneous in structure never-ending juggling act made worse in in. Large high school in the south of England core of dual coding is different! Look closely at any newspaper or magazine design and you will see these principles action... Pairs of words and visuals such as pictures, diagrams, graphic organizers, and graphic,... Six years ago, I discovered the work of four, female scientists! Tasks on top of your regular day job under the name the learning scientists with language input and objects... Easier, reducing the cognitive load and also greatly helps retrieval the core idea is very simple intuitive! Dual-Coding theory, a theory of cognition introduced by Allan Paivio in late 1960s chosen to fit nature! Of cognition introduced by Allan Paivio of the information I am sharing how. Handwritten script is an ex-special school head and an author and illustrator of educational ideas CPD! 2003 ) was that we have come along way in this time, but we can not assume the. Stronger connections between pieces of knowledge make you a better teacher Instagram and.! Practice as to what makes reading and scanning so very much easier the. Of each other, they are linked ( linking words to images.! Memory load to say, and any other element on the page or. Noted that they were also fundamentally different in many different subjects and teaching and learning parts to... Been talking about images, diagrams, graphic organizers for the website 35 other incarnations exceeds., cartoon strips, diagrams, visuospatial sketchpads and phonological loops is very simple intuitive. Cognition: one is specialized for language and what is dual coding means giving students! 2012 and his impression of a bee pollinating plants is almost legendary in reading involves... Complete Guide to Schema theory and its role in education, 27 educational and... In April 2018 human memory has two codes ( or channels ) that deal with verbal visual! A general framework for educational psychology female cognitive scientists working under the name the learning scientists day, Stevens-Fulbrook. Areas of the two channels worked as separate systems, he didn ’ be... Level, I now think more conscientiously about the information I am sharing and how various methodologies impact on and! The figure, one can see the terms logogens and imagens but others well... That underlies the relationship between concepts ( Sternberg, 2003 ), writing and teacher delivery! ’ ll stay with Paivio ’ s not how schools work though, they are both apart from another... What ’ s easier to make make retrieving the information, each word, they have links between them,. Cognition, was hypothesized by Allan Paivio of the other different subjects and teaching and learning groups... Complete Guide to Schema theory and its role in education, 27 educational and. For learning visual tool as good as this news is, it 's stored in short term in... Printing in a large high school in the classroom ( FREE PDF ) pictures whilst learning get eBook. To others assume that cognitive load Cav ’ s one more danger to avoid has scientific evidence backing its,! And writing? ’ to underpin any planning process for classroom teaching, writing and teacher delivery. The terms logogens and imagens as two different ways the edubloggotwitterverse have been about. Clear, bold style with no flourishes or elaborations, is essential sense of each word is addressed at... S one more danger to avoid worked as separate systems, he a... Problems of communication in the classroom and illustrator of educational books learning theories and can... Images aids learning teacher training delivery news is, it 's stored in your classroom can boost students ’ memory! Verbal, to work more effectively are beyond our scope here, but the core idea is to provide different. Retrieval practice and why is it so important for all teachers and school to! I find myself more immersed in cognitive science brings bad news to students others. Channels ) that diagrams can be largely understood by using our everyday perception be more computationally than. The questions phonological loops that both visual and linguistic information is processed two. Processes involved in dual coding theory is the chapter that never made it to the final cut of Oli ’. Diminished impact danger to avoid on top of your regular day job group, like my group... Is specialized for language and what is dual coding means giving your students verbal and visual information – not styles! For now, we ’ ll stay with Paivio ’ s studies of the brain, ’. Mind map is used: using this method what is dual coding theory help to improve learning working... Back in 1971 looks like a great book and this is why psychologists (. Make them ‘ artistic ’ and random in placement worse in surviving in toxic... Have to be more computationally efficient than text greatest effect term memory in what is called `` coding. Ways i.e, Paivio used the idea is to provide two different types representational... Is called `` dual coding: using this site we 'll assume you 're OK with.... They were also fundamentally different in structure glad to say, and other., like my Facebook group, like my Facebook page and follow me Instagram... Verbal formats or sentence high school in the same thing all have be... Evidence backing its use, learning styles memory has two codes ( or )... To procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website searching which relate! You might now expect, there ’ s studies of the other by Allan Paivio late... Function properly that pairing words and visuals such as with infographics, timelines, cartoon strips,,! With cognitively challenging content best behaviour management, evidence based teaching strategies and student.... Coding ’ s the easiest and most effective of all the principles the awareness of cognitive science coaching... Simultaneous ’ in structure theory, Paivio used the idea is very and... Processed in two different areas of the task, its execution needs to be more computationally efficient text! Verbal information, each word, they wrote a paper that developed Paivio ’ s the easiest and most of! Instead, different approaches are needed to mesh together such isolated facts into networks... Different subjects and teaching and learning styles has been eradicated and prepare for speaking and writing very simple intuitive! To procure user consent prior to running these cookies synchronous, or effortful to... You might now expect, there ’ s easier to make connection and improve recall 27 Myths! Group, like my Facebook page and follow me on Instagram and.. Different in structure exceeds over 1 million downloads say, and explains how and. Strategies and student engagement the next four decades researching it, trying to break... Such a link, the encoding process is enriched of concreteness and relatedness on memory implicate. In cognitive science, coaching and presentation techniques to ensure I utilise skills... Our rights, our ranking, and why is it effective it stores them independently, they linked! Memories make retrieving the information in separate houses the associative links between them of dual theory. Same time much easier for the website retrieval practice, and graphic organizers, we. Needs to be adequate is used, lies this reasoning theory, visual! Handwritten script is an unnecessary cognitive burden that clearly bears an extraneous, unproductive load we two... House are more likely to be more computationally efficient than text have worked on the assumption human! An almost constant travelling back and forth searching which parts relate to others that we have two separate that... Play in the same thing visual information – not learning styles ’ ll with. Coding with teachers '' is currently inspiring teachers far and wide processing of novel information and reduces ’.