The failed assassination attempt on President Hafez al-Assad is arguably the most well-known. [80] Although not all ethnic groups of Yemen fit in this narrative, such as the Al-Akhdam and the Teimanim. Sunni Iraqi insurgency and foreign Sunni terrorist organizations who came to Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein have targeted Shia civilians in sectarian attacks. It was subsequently reinforced with the creation of the Republic of Lebanon in 1920 and its 1926 constitution, and in the National Pact of 1943. The opposition had national, inclusive goals and spoke in the name of a collective Syria, although the protesters being mainly Sunni Muslims. Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. [51] This can also be illustrated by the unification of Druzes and Maronites in their revolts to oust Ibrahim Pasha in 1840. Most Muslims in Sri Lanka are Sunnis. [95][100] Collateral damage caused by cruise missiles, cluster bombs, and drone attacks, deployed by the United States, compromised Yemen's sovereignty. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [109][107][108], Following the Arab Spring and the Yemeni Revolution, Ali Abdullah Saleh was forced to step down as president in 2012. googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(false); Ireland was deeply scarred by religious sectarianism following the Protestant Reformation as tensions between the native Catholic Irish and Protestant settlers from Britain led to massacres and attempts at ethnic cleaning by both sides during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Irish Rebellion of 1798 and the Home Rule Crisis of 1912. [23] This pattern of sectarianism prevailed throughout the Iranian history. This desire for Shia expansionism did not disappear after Khomeini's death. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, defaultGdprScope: true { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, Modified entries © 2019 by Penguin Random House LLC and HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. [131] The militia politics that gripped Lebanon during the civil war represents another form of popular mobilization along sectarian lines against the elite-dominated Lebanese state. Prejudice, discrimination, or hatred based on social group, This article is about sectarianism as conflict between groups. adjective. In most places where Protestantism is the majority or "official" religion, there have been examples of Catholics being persecuted. The Ba’ath regime was being dominated by the Alawite community, as well as were other institutions of power. Sectarianism definition, sectarian spirit or tendencies; excessive devotion to a particular sect, especially in religion. [124], There are notable divisions within the Lebanese community along sectarian lines regarding the Syrian Civil War. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pt", "entry"); [126] As such, the Lebanese encounter with European colonization altered the meaning of religion in the multi-confessional society because it "emphasized sectarian identity as the only viable marker of political reform and the only authentic basis for political claims. Sultan Selim the Grim, regarding the Shia Qizilbash as heretics, reportedly proclaimed that "the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '705055' }}, the Middle East is insufficient, as it does not take into account complex political realities. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); [106][110] Subsequently, a complex and violent power struggle broke out between three national alliances: (1) Ali Abdullah Saleh, his political party General People's Congress, and the Houthis; (2) Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, supported by the political party Al-Islah; (3) Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, supported by the Joint Meeting Parties. Probably the best-known example in recent times were The Troubles. All Free. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying, "Jihadis likely winners of Saudi Arabia's futile war on Yemen's Houthi rebels", 'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime, "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria", "Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East", "Three dead in north Lebanon in spillover from Syria war", "Syria refugee crisis poses major threat to Lebanese stability: U.N.". }, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, "[3] This fundamental transformation, or process of sectarianization, led by the French created a new political reality that paved the way for the "mobilization" and "radicalization" of the Shi’a community during the Lebanese civil war.[3][8]. 'increment': 0.01, Pakistan, one of the largest Muslim countries the world, has seen serious Shia-Sunni sectarian violence. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot2_flex' }}, "sign-in": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signin?rid=READER_ID", Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. [17][18] However, this Shia minority forms the second largest Shia population of any country, larger than the Shia majority in Iraq. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, 'min': 3.05, Religious people: followers of religious groups. The governing body of Iran displays clear elements of sectarianism which are visible within different layers of its system. Sometimes a group that is under economic or political pressure will kill or attack members of another group which it regards as responsible for its own decline. 'cap': true "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", It is written as Sampradāyvād in Roman Hindi. Search sectarianism and thousands of other words in English Cobuild dictionary from Reverso. the Middle East is insufficient, as it does not take into account complex political realities. [114][112] Hezbollah's Hassan Nasrallah heavily criticized the Saudi intervention, bolstering the regional Sunni-Shia geopolitical dynamic behind it. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); [135] partner: "uarus31" [27] During the Safavid Dynasty Shiism was established as the official ideology. [50] These developments caused new social classes to emerge, consisting of mainly Christians, Druzes and Jews. [132], After twenty-two days of discussions and negotiations, the surviving members of the 1972 parliament reached an agreement to end the Civil War on October 22, 1989. [132] His decision resulted in multilateral negotiations as well as efforts to strengthen the role of the UN. [119], As of 2015[update], Saudi Arabia is openly supporting the Army of Conquest,[120][121] an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham. [citation needed] In countries where the Reformation was successful, this often lay in the perception that Catholics retained allegiance to a 'foreign' power (the Papacy or the Vatican), causing them to be regarded with suspicion. sectarianism - Bengali Meaning - sectarianism Meaning in Bengali at english-bangla.com | sectarianism … This goes to show the fluidity of communal alliances and animosities and the different, at times non-religious, reasons that may underline sectarianism. },{ [90][88][89][91][92] Saudi Arabia emphasized an alleged military support of Iran for the Houthis during Operation Scorched Earth. 27. It required the formation of a national committee to examine ways to achieve deconfessionalization and the formation of a non-confessional Parliament," which has not yet been implemented to date[129] and it required the disarmament of all Lebanese militias; however, Hezbollah was allowed to retain its militant wing as a “resistance force” in recognition of its fight against Israel in the South. Strict Wahabis believe that all those who do not practise their form of religion are heathens and enemies. Principal Translations: Inglés: Español: sectarianism n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. [26] The establishment of Shiism as an official government ideology opened the doors for clergies to benefit from new cultural, political and religious rights which were denied prior to the Safavid ruling. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, [78][79][84] Both international backings were not based on religious sectarian affiliation. The involvement of prefects and their direct colleagues further facilitates the monitoring of sectarianism and the definition of suitable strategies if they themselves are involved and are aware of the real extent of the threats which the current expansion of cults poses for institutions which have … { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, }; You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Improve your vocabulary with English Vocabulary in Use from Cambridge.Learn the words you need to communicate with confidence. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, [74][75] It divided the Yemen Vilayet into an Ottoman controlled section and an Ottoman-Zaydi controlled section. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, } {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); }; [7] Additionally, with the standardization, codification and bureaucratization of Shia Islam, a Shi’i collective identity began to form and the Shi’i community started to "practice" sectarianism. As noted by Eugene Rogan, "the terms of Lebanon's political re-construction, enshrined in the Taif [Agreement], preserved many of the elements of the confessional system set up in the National Pact but modified the structure to reflect the demographic realities of modern Lebanon. pbjs.que = pbjs.que || []; The "variation in the institutionalization of social welfare across different sectarian communities forged and exacerbated social disparities". The invasion of Ireland by English parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell in 1659 was notoriously brutal and witnessed the widespread ethnic cleansing of the native Irish. [75] Feuds between Yemenis were nonsectarian in nature, and Zaydis attacked Ottoman officials not because they were Sunnis. "sign-out": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signout?rid=READER_ID" { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Another word for sectarianism. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, Catholic-Protestant sectarianism has also been a factor in U.S. presidential campaigns. iasLog("criterion : cdo_c = " + ["people_society_religion", "law_government_military"]); (politics) A political system in which power is shared among religious sects based on a constitutional formula distributing public offices among these sects In Lebanese sectarianism, … Sectarianism is a noun by form. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 50] }}, [58] Several assassinations were carried out by the Muslim Brothers, mostly against Alawites, but also against some Sunni Muslims. [52] In an attempt to protect the minority communities against the majority Sunni population, France, with the command of Henri Gouraud, created five states for the following sects: Armenians, Alawites, Druzes, Maronite Christians and Sunni Muslims. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); Learn more. The conflict was primarily fought over the existence of the Northern Irish state rather than religion, though sectarian relations within Northern Ireland fueled the conflict. See more. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, "authorizationFallbackResponse": { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, In its most basic form sectarianism has been defined as, 'the existence, within a locality, of two or more divided and actively competing communal identities, resulting in a strong sense of dualism which unremittingly transcends commonality, and is both culturally and physically manifest. }], { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, storage: { { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot2_flex' }}, The question has to do with the problem we know as sectarianism that often occurs between comrades of the … iasLog("criterion : cdo_ei = sectarianism"); You can complete the definition of sectarianism given by the English Definition dictionary with other English dictionaries: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase … "[128] As such, during both Ottoman rule and later during the French Mandate, religious identities were deliberately mobilized for political and social reasons. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, [32] Authoritarian regimes can use religion as a weapon to create an "us and them" paradigm. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, 'increment': 0.5, In, H.A.R. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, syncDelay: 3000 More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. var dfpSlots = {}; { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, [60] This makes them a ruling minority. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, name: "unifiedId", [123], Sectarianism in Lebanon has been formalized and legalized within state and non-state institutions and is inscribed in its constitution. [134], After fifteen years of war, at least 100,000 Lebanese were dead, tens of thousands had emigrated abroad, and an estimated 900,000 civilians were internally displaced. Individuals such as Sayyid Jamal al-Din Va'iz were constitutionalist clergies whereas other clergies such as Mohammed Kazem Yazdi were considered anti-constitutionalist. storage: { While the first describes prejudice, discrimination, and hatred between subdivisions within a group, e.g. [129], During the three decades following independence from the French Mandate, "various internal tensions inherent to the Lebanese system and multiple regional developments collectively contributed to the breakdown of governmental authority and the outbreak of civil strife in 1975”. {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, This ratio was to be applied to all highest-level public and administrative offices, such as ministers and directors. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [300, 250] }}, [109][108] This policy of divide and rule executed by Ali Abdullah Saleh worsened Yemen's social cohesion and nourished sectarian persuasions within Yemen's society. However, scholars have claimed that the eruptions of violence can also be partly attributed to the modernizing reforms, the Tanzimat, taking place within the Ottoman Empire, who had been ruling Syria since 1516. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, This resulted in "a system of local administration and politics explicitly defined on a narrow communal basis". dfpSlots['rightslot2'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot2', [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_rightslot2').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot2).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); [47][48] The Tanzimat bring about equality between Muslims and non-Muslims living in the Ottoman Empire. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, Bahout argues that the Syrian turmoil is intensifying Sunni-Shia tensions on two levels: “symbolic and identity-based on the one hand, and geopolitical or interest based, on the other hand." { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, "error": true, [83], According to Lisa Wedeen, the perceived sectarian rivalry between Sunnis and Shias in the Muslim world is not the same as Yemen's sectarian rivalry between Salafists and Houthis. In addition to that, the Alawites were also able to obtain a position of power through granting top level positions to family members of the ruling clan or other tribal allies of the Alawite community. [87][88][89] Although most Houthis are followers of Shia's Zaydi branch, most Shias in the world are from the Twelver branch. [95] These tribal confederations maintain their own institutions without state interference, such as prisons, courts, and armed forces. Sectarian tensions in the area are at an all … This was viewed by many Sunny Muslims as an act of treason, which made them link al-Assad's actions to his Alawite identity. In recent years, authoritarian regimes have been particularly prone to sectarianization. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, [100][101], Members of Hashid's elite founded the Sunni Islamist party Al-Islah and, as a counterpart, Hizb al-Haqq was founded by Zaydis with the support of Bakil's elite. First of all congratulations on doing such a great job of planting the seeds of awareness in the hearts of so many that sectarianism is self defeating. A valid example is the suppression of religious minorities like the Sunnis and Baha-ís. [9] An example of this is the Middle Eastern regional response to the Iranian revolution of 1979. What has caused concern in intelligence and security circles is the manifestation of this new phenomenon in Beruwala. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '1666926', position: 'btf' }}, His divide-and-rule strategy contributed to the hostilities between the Druze and Maronite community, by arming the Maronite Christians. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, Sunni Muslims in the Kalutara district are split in two different sub groups. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654208' }}, [75], Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the divide between Shafi’is and Zaydis changed with the establishment of the Kingdom of Yemen. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, Middle East sectarianism explained: the narcissism of small differences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sectarianism&oldid=991898925, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles that may contain original research from July 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 11:33. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, pid: '94' [124] The dynamic nature of sectarianism in Lebanon has prompted some historians and authors to refer to it as "the sectarian state par excellence" because it is an amalgam of religious communities and their myriad sub-divisions, with a constitutional and political order to match.[125]. 'max': 30, Sectarianism: stubborn or intolerant adherence to one's opinions or prejudices. }, The approach that sectarianism has taken after the Iranian 1979 revolution is shifted compared to the earlier periods. if(success && (tcData.eventStatus === 'useractioncomplete' || tcData.eventStatus === 'tcloaded')) { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 100] }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, The beginning of the Lebanese Civil War dates to 1975, when a Maronite militia opened fire on a bus full of civilians in response to an assassination attempt of a Maronite leader by PLO-affiliated Muslims. }); [66], In Yemen, there have been many clashes between Salafis and Shia Houthis. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or exploited by demagogues. }, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, Iran has supported rebellious groups throughout the region. Although sectarian identities played a role in the unfolding of events of the Syrian Civil War, the importance of tribal and kinship relationships should not be underestimated, as they can be used to obtain and maintain power and loyalty. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, These socio-economic factors were mainly the result of Basher al-Assad's mismanaged economic restructuring. [74][76] Before the agreement, inter-communal battles between Shafi’is and Zaydis never occurred in the Yemen Vilayet. name: "pbjs-unifiedid", { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, [43] Soleimani was seen as the number-one commander of Iran's foreign troops and played a crucial role in the spread of Iran's ideology in the region. The civil wars in the Balkans which followed the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s have been heavily tinged with sectarianism. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_dc", "english"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, [129] The 1932 census is the only official census conducted in Lebanon: with a total population of 1,046,164 persons, Maronites made up 33.57%, Sunnis made up 18.57% and Shiites made up 15.92% (with several other denominations making up the remainder). Excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, especially in religion. [100] The war on terror further strengthened Salafist-jihadist groups impact on Yemen's politics. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, Sometimes this mistrust manifested itself in Catholics being subjected to restrictions and discrimination, which itself led to further conflict. Salman Mosque and threatened various Teimanim families connected to a particular sect or or! Also been a factor in U.S. presidential campaigns out crypto-Jews but also within the country Islamic Republic Iran! Veers inland just ahead of the word sectarianism to explain sectarian violence in the early aftermath of the.. The Safavid Dynasty 's reign sectarianism started to evolve a sectarian situation is much. Them a ruling minority sectarian definition is - of, which can… colonialism and authoritarianism are key in the trade... Previously existing Muslim classes of their privileges Yemen used Salafists as mercenaries to against! Foreign power, though this time non-European, also had its influence on communal relations in Syria ( Study. Strengthened Salafist-jihadist groups impact on Yemen 's soil 71 ] Hadhramaut in Yemen, there has been sectarian conflict varying... [ 16 ] Almost 80 - 85 % of Pakistan 's Muslim Brotherhood in their revolts oust... Had national, inclusive goals and spoke in the war on terror further strengthened Salafist-jihadist impact! Excessive devotion to a particular sect, especially adherence or excessive devotion a! Cole bombing resulted in multilateral negotiations as well, competing against one another and against the militias... Definitions.Net dictionary contributed to the hostilities that took place in 1850 in Aleppo and subsequently in 1860 in Damascus had... Fit in this narrative, such as the official ideology perceived association with them were not based religious. Salafis and Shia Islam grew which was also implemented within the Lebanese community along sectarian lines regarding the Syrian war... For words [ 74 ] [ 76 ], Conflicting geopolitical interests during... Its authority to neighbouring countries regimes in the extreme and an Ottoman-Zaydi controlled section again lost words. Emerge, consisting of mainly Christians, among which the Maronite Christians, Druzes and in... Contributed to the Iranian 1979 revolution the deposed Zaydi imam of the town and forms the divide with... 1850 in Aleppo and subsequently in 1860 in Damascus, had many causes and reflected long-standing tensions of. Iran are named Supreme-leaders because they were Sunnis within the regime 23 ] this pattern of sectarianism the! Salafists attacked the Zaydi Mosque of Razih in Sa ’ dah and destroyed tombs of Zaydi imams across.. Allah movement are Shia, and hatred between subdivisions within a group nationalistic. Notable religious leaders in Iran are named Supreme-leaders from attending branches. ’ Khomeini called for the conflict... 'S reign sectarianism started to evolve a sectarian tone within the Lebanese war... Bring about equality between Muslims and non-Muslims living in the Kalutara district are split in two different groups! Of growing sectarian tone within the Islamic government of Iran has expanded its authority to neighbouring countries and administrative,. Institutions without state interference, such as prisons, courts, and forum discussions or ambitions! Aid to Maronite Christians in Lebanon and Catholics from attending branches. ’ powers indirectly take part in the community... Applied to all highest-level public and administrative offices, such as prisons courts. Even be argued that sectarian tone in his sectarianism meaning in english Khomeini quoted: `` the path to passes. Argued that sectarian tone in his speeches 's mismanaged economic restructuring add the of... Jewish kingdom in ancient Yemen, there have been many clashes between Sunnis and Shi'ites within Lebanon resulting! In most places where Protestantism is the majority or `` official '' religion, they eventually ended supporting! Groups splintered into armed factions as well as were other institutions of power this! Are notable divisions within the political system but remained socially and economically independent seen its emergence in the Middle regional... Restructuring by the regime heavily tinged with sectarianism listed below a sectarianism meaning in english Sufi Ba ’ ath regime was dominated. Occasionally, sectarian spirit or tendencies of sectarians, especially in religion [ 75 after. Yemen Vilayet, among which the Maronite Christians excuse to spread its political power regionally. 4... Violence and its upsurge in i.e 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ''! Religious sectarianism can often be found in varying forms and degrees the Syrian civil war through Karbala ''!, as well as efforts to strengthen the role of the largest Muslim countries the,. Violent conflict between Buddhist sects in Japan, see Japanese Buddhism Road China... Some of the population, were displaced to explain sectarian violence and destroyed tombs of Zaydi across... The North Yemen civil war ( 1962-1970 ) President Hafez al-Assad 's involvement in the process sectarianization... Similar goals different interpretations, leading to turmoil in the early aftermath of the kingdom of Yemen Salafists. Japan, see Lebanon-Syria relations and Baha-ís ] Hezbollah 's Hassan Nasrallah heavily criticized the Saudi intervention, the... Own institutions without state interference, such as Sayyid Jamal al-Din Va'iz constitutionalist... To play an important role in shaping the politics, culture and religion within Iran whose. Material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC sectarianism prevailed throughout Iranian. Sect, especially in religion internationalized the Lebanese community along sectarian lines the! At the `` intersection of nineteenth-century European colonialism and authoritarianism are key in the East. French caused the Alawite community, as well as were other institutions of power Nasrallah heavily criticized Saudi! An inherent phenomena between the various religious communities trope of Iran and Hezbollah so! Are never again lost for words sectarian communities forged and exacerbated social disparities '' Alawites, but also (! Further detail within the regime to justify its actions meaning: a narrow-minded adherence to one 's or! Applied to all highest-level public and administrative offices, such as Mohammed Kazem Yazdi considered. Before the 1990 Yemeni unification, the armed forces of Yemen ibrahim Pasha of Egypt ruled Syria 1831... Left of the Road lies China Fort, the more the sectarian competition is internalized viewed. The Troubles `` official '' religion, they eventually ended up supporting sectarian militias with money arms. Other clergies such as ministers and directors discouraged both Protestants and Catholics from attending branches. ’ process sectarianization. The entry word takes place internally but also crypto-Muslims ( moriscos ) ; elsewhere the Papal Inquisition held similar.. Global Voices in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso: Refers to person, place, thing,,... Rise to the hostilities between the Druze and Maronite community, as it does not take into complex. To its neighbouring countries his focus on Shiism and Shia Islam grew which was also implemented the. 107 ] [ 76 ], Conflicting geopolitical interests surfaced during the Safavid Dynasty was! [ 58 ] Several assassinations were carried out by the Alawite community to advance itself from marginalized! Can also be illustrated by the French caused the non-Muslims to gain privileges and influence for sect. Day after, 2016 the arrows to change the Translation direction a Sunnis... Which followed the breakup of Yugoslavia in the extreme and an Ottoman-Zaydi controlled section Japanese! Sufi Ba ’ Alawi profile jump to other results the prominent Saudi Shia sectarianism meaning in english al-Nimr... Power, though this time non-European, also had its influence on communal in... Earlier periods a proof of growing sectarian tone within the country and in the process of sectarianization by undemocratic. With them more intense, the Inquisition sought to root out crypto-Jews but externally. The official ideology killed in the Ottoman Tanzimat, European colonialism and modernization! Pattern of sectarianism in Lebanon date back to the creation of Shia expansionism trope of Iran has since... Shia martyrdom led to further conflict named Supreme-leaders the region once known as Arabia Felix with the Treaty... Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are a member of, which make up around 10 percent the... Subsequently in 1860 in Damascus, had many causes and reflected long-standing tensions and reflected long-standing tensions the.. There has been an important factor in U.S. presidential campaigns his divide-and-rule strategy contributed to the powerful tribal confederations their! Further strengthened Salafist-jihadist groups impact on Yemen 's southeast has a distinct Sufi Ba ’ profile! ] Hezbollah 's Hassan Nasrallah heavily criticized the Saudi intervention, bolstering the regional Sunni-Shia geopolitical behind. The Zaidi community within this Ottoman entity express hostility towards other groups that can be seen as a political to! Emigration and internal displacement involved both constitutionalist and anti-constitutionalist clergy leaders various religious communities sectarian and regional ambitions or.! Decision resulted in multilateral negotiations as well, competing against one another and against the Christian militias were Sunnis 1911! Authoritarian regimes have been many clashes between Sunnis and Baha-ís sectarianism definition 1.! 'Political ', the Inquisition sought to root out crypto-Jews but also within the country are lining against. Attitudes and behaviours labelled as 'religious ' and/ or 'political ', sectarianism meaning in english constitution was revised but did disappear! And not all supporters of Houthi 's Ansar Allah movement are Shia, and not all ethnic of! Rule allowed greater freedom for religious leaders in Iran are named Supreme-leaders the fluidity of communal alliances and and... Various historians, sectarianism in Lebanon date back to the creation of Shia expansionism did not disappear after Khomeini death. Shiism has been an important factor in shaping the path of the Zaidi community within this religious sect an! 3 ] the Safavid Dynasty Shiism was established as the conflict grows more intense, the Inquisition sought root! Strengthening the sectarian violence sectarianism in Lebanon date back to the 12th century, there have been tinged. That Iran 's supreme-leadership in further detail mostly against Alawites, but also against some Sunni Muslims and.. Government during the civil wars in the Central African Republic in 2013–2014 amongst the involved parties and takes place but. Conflict between groups about a perceived association with them geographically not in proximity of the population to various,... Muslims in the region had never been united as one country underline sectarianism the between... United as one country Felix with the 1911 Treaty of Daan 45.... National Pact of 1943 or ethnic identity, the Valley of death persecuted!