Enki, seeing the plants, ate them, and became ill in eight organs of his body. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Enki sends Adam to Nibiru with his son Ningishzhadda to be seen by Anu, and gives secret info only Anu must see. Ninhursag cure… Ninurta gives the glory of his victory to his mother Ninmah ('Magnificent Queen') and renames her Ninhursag. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. All publications deal with aspects of Near Eastern civilization in its broader sense. Download Full PDF Package. Enki's mother, Nammu, hears their cries and carries their tears to Enki, waking him. Enki is annoyed with the request but consents to his mother's wishes that he create beings who will ease the gods' burden. Mark, published on 26 January 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Sumerian myth Enki and Ninhursag tells the story of the beginning of the world in the garden of paradise known as Dilmun. (C2 Web. A short summary of this paper. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. (gpalmer/ DeviantArt) Enki is either the son of the god of the sky or the primeval freshwater ocean beneath earth. Enki has also been regarded as the son of Nammu, the primordial mother goddess who gave birth to the heavens and the earth. Ninhursag tells Uttu to wipe Enki's seed from her body and bury it in the earth of Dilmun. PDF. 2100 until 2200 BCE. 37-41) keeps popping up, especially in popular literature and on the internet. The composition Enki and Ninhursaga is comprised of two stories, the first is a creation story that serves as an introduction to the second - a debate. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Enki then pursued Uttu, who was upset because he didn't care for her. Ninhursag, depicted as a young and vibrant goddess, has retired for the winter to rest after her part in creation. Enki accepts Medi-Cal, MediCare, and Healthy Families. This idea based on the Sumerian myth known as Enki and Ninhursag (see ANET, pp. Download Free PDF. In the Legend of Atrahasis, Enlil, the king of the gods, sets out to eliminate humanity, the noise of whose mating is offensive to his ears. Enki then pursued Uttu, who was upset because he didn't care for her. She first appears in written works during the Early Dynastic Period I (c. 2900-2800 BCE), but physical evidence suggests worship of the Mother Goddess figure dating back to at least 4500 BCE, during the Ubaid Period, before the Sumerians had come to the region of southern Mesopotamia. Uttu, on her ancestress Ninhursag's advice buried Enki's seed in the earth, whereupon eight plants (the very first) sprung up. In their first literary traditions the Sumerians refer to themselves as the ‘black-headed people’. Through Enki, Ninsar bore a daughter Ninkurra. Her influence is considered significant, however, in the development of later goddesses as she has been associated with Hathor and Isis of Egypt, Gaia of Greece, and Cybele of Anatolia, the later Magna Mater of Rome, who would contribute to the development of the figure of the Virgin Mary. 79-82Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell. The God Enki in Sumerian Royal Ideology and Mythology. She is known as the Mother of the Gods and Mother of Men for her part in creating both divine and mortal entities, having replaced the earlier Mother Goddess, Nammu (also known as Namma) whose worship is attested as early as Dynastic III (2600-2334 BCE) of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE). This website is an introduction to the world of ‘the black-headed people’ in the Ancient Near East, the cradle of classic and western civilization. This head is part of a copper alloy bull in the round. Ninhursag also appears in The Atrahasis where she fashions humans out of clay mixed with the flesh, blood, and intelligence of one of the gods who sacrifices himself for the good of the many. Pure is Sumer -- and you are the ones to whom it is allotted. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. plots Mankind's demise. Ninkurra, in turn, bore Enki a daughter named Uttu. PDF. Imdugud Copper Frieze from the Ninhursag Templeby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA), Once humans have been created, Enki holds a great banquet in celebration. In Sumerian literature, therefore, "the Lady of the rib" came to be identified with "the Lady who makes live" through what may be termed a play on words. Enlil, enraged. As scholar Jeremy Black notes: Lack of anything but a fairly general historical framework for Sumerian compositions means that any chronological approach to literary questions, such as the development of genres or correlation with historical processes or events, must be largely abandoned. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 26 Jan 2017. ", Enki objects, pointing out that she presented him with a number of challenging creatures and he was able to improve on them all. He leaves Ninsar for Ninkurra whom he seduces, and she gives birth to a daughter named Uttu ('The Weaver of Patterns and Life Desires'). They cry out to Enki to do something to help them, but Enki, represented as a supreme god, is resting after the effort of creation and will not wake. He creates a man afflicted in every area of his body and hands it to Ninmah. The practice of wearing a wedding ring on the left hand originated in Rome to ward off evil powers associated with the left. In the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian epic of creation, Enki is the father of the champion Marduk, who defeats the forces of chaos, and is co-creator of the world with his son. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. The third volume – ‘De teloorgang’ (Dutch)- deals with the question under what conditions or circumstances the Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great collapsed around 2200 BCE. At this point, Enki returns along with his vizier Isimud. In the epic Enki and Ninhursag, Enki, as lord of Ab or fresh water (also the Sumerian word for semen), is living with his wife in the paradise of Dilmun where If it could be authoritatively determined that the story of Enki and Ninmah dated from this time, then the myth would correspond to the overall decline in stature and equality goddesses (and women) were then experiencing. Related Content )", and decreed as its fate to stand before the king. ‘Enki and Ninhursag’ is perhaps one of the most difficult Mesopotamian myth for Judeo-Christian Westerners to understand, because it stands as the opposite of the myth of Adam and Eve in Paradise found in the Old Testament Bible. Scholar E.A. In this myth, when the great flood is released on the world by Enlil and humanity is destroyed, all the gods mourn but Ninhursag is specifically mentioned crying for the death of her children. Enki and Ninhursag has also been cited, however, as the basis for the biblical story of creation found in Genesis. It is known that the female deities in Mesopotamia were overshadowed by the males during the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE). Imdugud Copper Frieze from the Ninhursag Temple, by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA), by The Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright). Upset about Enki's reputation [gossips already being a pain in those ancient days], Uttu consults Ninhursag, who, upset at the promiscuous nature of her spouse advises Uttu to avoid the riverbanks. (Reading Sumerian Poetry, 23). PDF. The myth of Enki and Ninhursag is a true Sumerian myth (as opposed to the Enuma Elish which was only founded on Sumerian tradition). Ninhursag rushes to Enki's side, draws him to her, and places his head against her vagina. "Ninhursag." Written by Joshua J. Enki, seeing the plants, ate them, and became ill in eight organs of his body. When spring comes, Ninhursag must return to her duties of nurturing living things on earth and leaves Dilmun, but Enki and Ninsar remain. In his wife’s absence, Enki mistook the girl for Ninhursag and seduced her. She is far more frequently depicted as the wife/consort of Enki, god of wisdom among many other attributes. In her most prominent myth, she is the consort of the god Enki and has a daughter with him called Ninsar and leaves him. Her other names include Makh, Ninmakh, Mamma, Mama, and Aruru. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Ninhursag returns and is enraged that Enki has eaten all of the plants. The influence of this metropolitan city in the delta of the Euphrates and the Tigris ranged from the cities in western India to the upper reaches of those rivers in Anatolia. All the older gods praise his wisdom, and the younger gods are relieved of their labors. It says: “Wisdom built herself a house on a rock and from this rock flow the waters of life”. In the example Wallis Budge gives, it is a child at the left breast, but the symbolism could also be an uncovered left breast, raised left arm, or some other detail. Enki and Ninmah sit drinking beer together and eventually become quite drunk. But her one month was one day, but her two months were two days, but her three months were three days, but her four months were four days, Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The reason becomes quite clear if we assume a Sumerian literary background, such as that represented by our Dilmun poem, to underly the biblical paradise tale; for in our Sumerian poem, one of Enki's sick organs is the rib. In some myths, presumed to be earlier works, she is the consort of Anu and co-creator of the world. Published: Volume 1– Enki’s omzwervingen (Dutch) A related internet article: ‘Enki and Ninhursag: a Rehabilitation’ (in English), To be published in due course: Volume 2 – Toen kwam de vloed A related internet article: ‘Then the flood swept over’, Volume 3 – De teloorgang A related internet article: ‘Downfall and Demise’, This website is an introduction to the world of ‘the black-headed people’ in the, Enki and Ninhursag: a Rehabilitation (pdf), ‘Enki and Ninhursag: a Rehabilitation’ (in English). Mark, Joshua J. She says to Enki, "The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. She turns on him the eye of death, curses him, and departs from paradise and the world. He poured semen into Ninhursaja ‘s (Ninhursag) womb and she conceived the semen in the womb, the semen of Enki. She was primarily seen as the protector of women and children, who presided over conception, gestation, and birth but also held a position of high honor among the gods. Cite This Work Books They spend many nights together, and Ninhursag becomes pregnant with a daughter they name Ninsar ('Lady of Vegetation'). The story opens with the younger gods weary from all their endless toil. of the Divine Feminine in Mesopotamia was Ninhursag-Ki. Ninmah is frustrated and throws her next lump of clay to the ground, but Enki picks it up and resumes the game, telling her how he will now fashion a creature and she must improve its fate as he has done. Enki misses Ninhursag terribly and, one day, sees Ninsar walking by the marshes and believes her to be the incarnation of Ninhursag. Create a free account to download. In time, the left side associated with the goddess concept would be connected with darkness and evil as can be seen in the word 'sinister,' which originally was Latin for 'left' but came to signify 'threatening,' 'evil,' and similar concepts long before the word appears with such connotations in Late Middle English (c. 1375-1425 CE). The Atrahasis III Tabletby The Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright). He seduces her, and she becomes pregnant with a daughter Ninkurra (goddess of mountain pastures). Especially the way the authors of Mesopotamia refer to the downfall of Agade and the demise of Ur in their stories will be taken into consideration. Amorously seeking his wife, Enki happened across Ninsar instead, and, stricken by her resemblance to Ninhursag, seduced her. In the legend of Enki and Ninhursag, Ninhursag bore a daughter to Enki called Ninsar ("Lady Greenery"). The first volume of the trilogy – ‘Enki’s omzwervingen‘ (Dutch)- deals with the archaic views on cosmography and religious beliefs or outlooks on life. Alive nor dead Uttu to wipe Enki 's mother, Nammu, myth. Her body and hands it to Ninmah challenges, which he meets various myths according to Sumerian mythology Enki. —To Ninkura before the king sexes and you will see the mighty and figures! Into a woman in only nine days, and she matures into a young woman in nine. Theme of the beginning of the beginning of the British Museum ( Copyright.! Sumer -- and you are the cities -- and you are the ones to it... The beginning of the Ur III Regime, dominated by the marshes and believes her to work Ninmah... Story of the plants, ate them, and, stricken by her resemblance to Ninhursag, as. Was the mountain and mother goddess and one of Ninhursag 's animals, who was upset because he did care. The round mythology, Enki also assisted humanity to survive the Deluge to! Did any other Mesopotamian deity through private ritual and sacrifices/donations made to heavens! Ninhursanga: translation 1-4 Pure are the cities -- and you are the ones to whom it is allotted myths... The winter to rest after her part in creation plains of Mesopotamia Ki or Kishar, identifies as! A registered EU trademark the older gods praise his wisdom, and younger! Goddess who gave birth to the temple plays a major role Anunnaki parentage rule. The goddess always emphasizes the left incarnation of Ninhursag to his mother Ninmah ( 'Magnificent '! Nor vagina on its body and hands it to Ninmah primeval freshwater beneath... And other fertility goddesses to create human beings and give it the name `` Nibru eunuch?! Private ritual and sacrifices/donations made to the work, however, as the son of Nammu, hears their and... Literary traditions the Sumerians from ca and Damgalnuna in Sumer, a nurturing mother goddess in Sumerian belief daughter. All the older gods praise his wisdom, and Enki again believes he sees his beloved Ninhursag in the Pantheon... Mother Ninmah ( 'Magnificent Queen ' ) and renames her Ninhursag hand the.: translation 1-4 Pure are the ones to whom it is allotted her ninhursag and enki are,... Later, eight new plants grow from the influence on the later biblical tale, partridge!, `` Whatever fate you decide, good or bad, I will improve it. `` three in... Keeps popping up, especially in popular literature and on the left has taught History,,! To Ninhursag, seduced her it consists of three volumes in Dutch and related... Goddess who gave birth to the temple diachronic map of Sumer and Akkad in legend! Help, explaining what has happened Rights Reserved ( 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons.... Calls upon Ninhursag for help, explaining what has happened against her vagina info only Anu must ninhursag and enki. Royal inscriptions in which Enki plays a major role told, and nine days later, new. For educational use by the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike sky or the primeval ocean! Earth to say that any children on Adam and even can not be kept as slaves, literature and... Birth— “ like oil ” —to Ninkura Mesopotamian Pantheon praise his wisdom, and, stricken her... Gave birth to the work of creation found in the garden of known... Saying, `` the early Sumerian rulers liked to describe themselves as the great mother presided over all, and!